传统部署和k8s部署区别

通常使用传统的部署的时候,我们一个web项目,网站的搭建,往往使用的如下的一种整体架构,可能有的公司在某一环节使用的东西是不一样,但是大体的框架流程是都是差不多的

使用k8s部署,便于弹性伸缩,节约资源,发布周期快,整体框架如下

环境

节点名 IP 软件版本 硬件 网络 说明
K8s-master 192.168.43.190 list 里面都有 2C4G Nat,内网 测试环境
K8s-node1 192.168.43.120 list 里面都有 2C4G Nat,内网 测试环境
K8s-node2 192.168.43.9 list 里面都有 2C4G Nat,内网 测试环境
K8s-harbor 192.168.43.129 list 里面都有 2C4G Nat,内网 测试环境

安装运行harbor(http方式)

安装docker
# 安装一些必要的系统工具
sudo yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2
# 添加软件源信息
# docker 官方源
sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

# 阿里云源
sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

  
# 安装前可以先更新 yum 缓存:
sudo yum makecache fast

# CentOS7安装 Docker-ce
yum -y install docker-ce        # CentOS 中安装
apt-get install docker-ce       # Ubuntu 中安装
pacman -S docker                # Arch 中安装
emerge --ask docker             # Gentoo 中安装

# 如果想安装特定版本的Docker-ce版本,先列出repo中可用版本,然后选择安装
yum list docker-ce --showduplicates |sort -r
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Installed Packages
docker-ce.x86_64            3:19.03.4-3.el7                    docker-ce-stable
docker-ce.x86_64            3:19.03.4-3.el7                    @docker-ce-stable
docker-ce.x86_64            3:19.03.3-3.el7                    docker-ce-stable
docker-ce.x86_64            3:19.03.2-3.el7                    docker-ce-stable
docker-ce.x86_64            3:19.03.1-3.el7                    docker-ce-stable

yum install docker-ce-<VERSION STRING>
# 选择安装 docker-ce-18.06.1.ce
yum install docker-ce-18.06.1.ce -y

# Docker镜像加速
# 没有启动/etc/docker目录不存在,需要自己创建,docker启动也会自己创建
# 为了期望我们的镜像下载快一点,应该定义一个镜像加速器,加速器在国内
mkdir /etc/docker
vim /etc/docker/daemon.json
{
"registry-mirrors": ["https://registry.docker-cn.com"]
}

# 启动Docker后台服务
systemctl start docker && systemctl enable docker
systemctl daemon-reload                 # 守护进程重启

# 通过运行hello-world镜像,验证是否正确安装了docker,或者通过查看版本
docker run hello-world
docker version
Client: Docker Engine - Community
Version:           19.03.4
API version:       1.40
Go version:        go1.12.10
Git commit:        9013bf583a
Built:            Fri Oct 18 15:52:22 2019
OS/Arch:           linux/amd64
Experimental:      false

https请看我下面专门写的文章

https://www.cnblogs.com/you-men/p/13121835.html

Harbor 可帮助用户迅速搭建企业级的 Registry 服务, 它提供了管理图形界面, 基于角色的访问控制 ( Role Based Access Control), 镜像远程复制 (同步), AD/LDAP 集成, 以及审计日志等企业用户需求的功能, 同时还原生支持中文, 深受中国用户的喜爱;

安装harbor

注意

安装harbor之前需要安装docker

VMware 公司开源了企业级 Registry 项目, 其的目标是帮助用户迅速搭建一个企业级的 Docker registry 服务。

由于 Harbor 是基于 Docker Registry V2 版本,所以 docker 版本必须 >=1.10.0 docker-compose >=1.6.0

下载最新版 Docker Compose
curl -L "https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.22.0/docker-compose-$(uname -s)-$(uname -m)" -o /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

下载最新版Docker Harbor
wget https://github.com/goharbor/harbor/releases/download/v1.10.0-rc1/harbor-offline-installer-v1.10.0-rc1.tgz

# 对二进制文件应用可执行权限:
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
# 测试是否安装成功
docker-compose --version
# 按照上面给的docker harbor地址,下载离线安装包
tar xvf harbor-offline-installer-v1.8.1.tgz -C  /usr/local/
vim  /usr/local/harbor/harbor.yml
hostname: 47.92.24.137

# 运行安装脚本
./install.sh 
[Step 0]: checking installation environment ...
Note: docker version: 19.03.4
Note: docker-compose version: 1.22.0
[Step 1]: loading Harbor images ...
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-core:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-registryctl:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/redis-photon:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/notary-server-photon:v0.6.1-v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/chartmuseum-photon:v0.8.1-v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-db:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-jobservice:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/nginx-photon:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/registry-photon:v2.7.1-patch-2819-v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-migrator:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/prepare:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-portal:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/harbor-log:v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/notary-signer-photon:v0.6.1-v1.8.1
Loaded image: goharbor/clair-photon:v2.0.8-v1.8.1
[Step 2]: preparing environment ...
prepare base dir is set to /usr/local/harbor
Generated configuration file: /config/log/logrotate.conf
Generated configuration file: /config/nginx/nginx.conf
Generated configuration file: /config/core/env
Generated configuration file: /config/core/app.conf
Generated configuration file: /config/registry/config.yml
Generated configuration file: /config/registryctl/env
Generated configuration file: /config/db/env
Generated configuration file: /config/jobservice/env
Generated configuration file: /config/jobservice/config.yml
Generated and saved secret to file: /secret/keys/secretkey
Generated certificate, key file:/secret/core/private_key.pem, cert file:/secret/registry/root.crt
Generated configuration file: /compose_location/docker-compose.yml
Clean up the input dir
[Step 3]: starting Harbor ...
✔ ----Harbor has been installed and started successfully.----
Now you should be able to visit the admin portal at http://47.92.24.137. 
For more details, please visit https://github.com/goharbor/harbor

接下来我们可以直接浏览器访问配置文件定义的IP或者域名加端口

默认用户密码: admin/Harbor12345

修改harbor端口
# 因为harbor默认端口是80,而大多数时候是不希望使用80端口,修改方法如下
# vim harbor.yml
# 找到port选项修改端口,然后执行./install 就会使用配置文件端口

# 还有一种情况就是更改已有harbor的配置
vim docker-compose.yml
    dns_search: .
    ports:
      - 99:80

auth:
  token:
    issuer: harbor-token-issuer
    realm: http://47.92.24.137:99/service/token
    rootcertbundle: /etc/registry/root.crt
    service: harbor-registry

docker-compose down -v
docker-compose up -d

使用harbor

为了体现出效果,建议使用非harbor的另一台机器

# 镜像推送
docker login 47.92.24.137:99 -u admin -p Harbor12345
vim  /etc/docker/daemon.json
{
  "insecure-registries":["192.168.43.129"]
}
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker
# 因为docker默认使用的是https协议,而搭建harbor是http提供服务的,
# 所以要配置可信任,或者强制docker login和docker push 走http的80端口,而不是443端口.
docker tag daocloud.io/library/nginx:latest 192.168.43.129/library/nginx:latest

docker push 192.168.43.129/library/nginx:latest

PHP部署项目流程

当我们把项目迁移到K8S平台上时,首先我们需要了解的是整个部署的流程,按照这个流程部署,才能避免出现问题,也方便大家理解

制作镜像

使用Dockerfile制作镜像,把应用程序、运行环境、文件系统一起打包成一个镜像,然后推送到Harbor镜像仓库中 首先在k8s的master节点进行操作

[root@k8s-master ]# git clone https://github.com/zhangdongdong7/php-demo.git
[root@k8s-master ]# cd php-demo
[root@k8s-master php-demo]# ls
deployment.yaml  ingress.yaml  mysql.yaml  namespace.yaml  README.md  service.yaml  wordpress

使用wordpress创建一个博客网站,打开wordpress,编写Dockerfile构建镜像,然后推送到一个harbor镜像仓库中,可以看前面章节,harbor镜像的搭建,这里是使用的harbor镜像仓库地址为192.168.43.129

[root@k8s-master php-demo]cd wordpress
[root@k8s-master wordpress]# vim Dockerfile 
FROM lizhenliang/nginx-php:latest
MAINTAINER www.ctnrs.com
ADD . /usr/local/nginx/html

[root@k8s-master wordpress]docker login 192.168.43.129

[root@k8s-master wordpress] docker build -t 192.168.43.129/library/php-demo:latest .
  
[root@k8s-master wordpress] docker push 192.168.43.129/library/php-demo:latest

创建控制器管理Pod

回到php-demo目录编写yaml,首先部署一个test的命令空间

[root@k8s-master wordpress]# cd ../
[root@k8s-master php-demo]# vim namespace.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: test
[root@k8s-master php-demo]# kubectl apply -f  namespace.yaml

kubectl get ns
NAME                   STATUS   AGE
default                Active   5h59m
kube-node-lease        Active   5h59m
kube-public            Active   5h59m
kube-system            Active   5h59m
kubernetes-dashboard   Active   5h18m
test                   Active   3s
创建认证
kubectl create secret docker-registry regsecret --docker-server=192.168.43.129 --docker-username=admin --docker-password=Harbor12345 -n test
配置deployment控制器

编写deployment.yaml控制器,这里需要把image进行修改成刚才推送到Harbor镜像仓库中的地址

[root@k8s-master php-demo]# vim deployment.yaml 
apiVersion: apps/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: php-demo
  namespace: test
spec:
  replicas: 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      project: www
      app: php-demo
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        project: www
        app: php-demo
    spec:
      imagePullSecrets:
      - name: registry-pull-secret
      containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: 192.168.43.129/library/php-demo:latest 
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
          name: web
          protocol: TCP
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 0.5
            memory: 256Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 1
            memory: 1Gi
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 0.5
            memory: 256Mi
          limits:
            cpu: 1
            memory: 1Gi
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /status.php
            port: 80
Pod数据持久化

因为是一个静态的网站,基本不需要做持久化,直接把代码打包到镜像中

暴露应用

创建一个service来暴露应用,直接使用的了ingress控制器的方式暴露应用了

[root@k8s-master php-demo]# vim service.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: php-demo
  namespace: test
spec:
  selector:
    project: www
    app: php-demo
  ports:
  - name: web
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
      
      
[root@k8s-master php-demo]# kubectl apply -f service.yaml

[root@k8s-master php-demo]# kubectl apply -f deployment.yaml 


[root@master php-demo]# kubectl get pods,svc -n test -o wide
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP            NODE     NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
pod/php-demo-65bc56fdb8-grklk   1/1     Running   0          15s   10.244.0.11   master   <none>           <none>
pod/php-demo-65bc56fdb8-td6nv   0/1     Running   0          15s   10.244.2.7    node2    <none>           <none>

NAME               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE     SELECTOR
service/php-demo   ClusterIP   10.0.0.221   <none>        80/TCP    4m16s   app=php-demo,project=www
创建ingress对外发布应用

编写yaml,首先创建ingress控制器,创建ingress,最后可以查看pod,svc,ingress的状态,全部都正常可以开始下一步,如果有异常可以使用kubectl describe命令查看日志进行排错

[root@k8s-master java-demo]# kubectl apply -f mandatory.yaml
[root@k8s-master php-demo]# vim ingress.yaml 
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: php-demo
  namespace: test
spec:
  rules:
    - host: php.ctnrs.com
      http:
        paths:
        - path: /
          backend:
            serviceName: php-demo
            servicePort: 80
[root@k8s-master php-demo]# kubectl apply -f ingress.yaml 

kubectl get pods,svc,ingress -n test -o wide
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP            NODE     NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
pod/php-demo-65bc56fdb8-grklk   1/1     Running   0          2m31s   10.244.0.11   master   <none>           <none>
pod/php-demo-65bc56fdb8-td6nv   1/1     Running   0          2m31s   10.244.2.7    node2    <none>           <none>

NAME               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE     SELECTOR
service/php-demo   ClusterIP   10.0.0.221   <none>        80/TCP    6m32s   app=php-demo,project=www

NAME                          CLASS    HOSTS           ADDRESS   PORTS   AGE
ingress.extensions/php-demo   <none>   php.ctnrs.com             80      60s

可以在集群之外找一个数据库,也可以在harbor镜像仓库安装

docker run -d -p 3306:3306 -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 daocloud.io/library/mysql:5.7.5
    
docker exec -it mysql:5.7 /bin/bash
mysql -uroot -p$MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD
create database wp;
grant all on youmen.* TO 'youmen'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'zhoujian20';

# 我们可以进入已经运行的pod修改下数据库ip,最好构建镜像时候就修改好
# 此处就不演示了,我们能访问到错误页面说明服务访问暴露是没有问题的
绑定hosts,访问域名验证

windows系统,hosts文件地址:C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc

Mac系统sudo vi /private/etc/hosts 编辑hosts文件,在底部加入域名和ip,用于解析

这个ip地址为node节点ip地址 加入如下命令,然后保存

在浏览器中,输入php.ctnrs.com,会跳转到初始化设置界面,设置对应的账号,然后安装,登录,然后就可以编辑文章发布了,一个简单的WordPress的php网站搭建完成

Java项目部署流程

制作镜像

使用Dockerfile制作镜像,把应用程序、运行环境、文件系统一起打包成一个镜像,然后推送到Harbor镜像仓库中

首先在k8s的master节点进行操作

[root@k8s-master ]# git clone https://github.com/zhangdongdong7/java-demo.git
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# cd java-demo
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# ls
deployment.yaml  ingress.yaml    mysql.yaml      README.md     tomcat-java-demo-master.zipdeploy.yml       mandatory.yaml  namespace.yaml  service.yaml
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# unzip tomcat-java-demo-master.zip
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# cd tomcat-java-demo-master/

安装环境

[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk maven -y

编译构建

如果maven构建慢可以使用阿里源

vim /etc/maven/settings.xml,大概在(159-164行),更换为如下代码

[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# vim /etc/maven/settings.xml    
    ...
    <mirror>
      <id>central</id>
      <mirrorOf>central</mirrorOf>
      <name>aliyun maven</name>
      <url>https://maven.aliyun.com/repository/public</url>
    </mirror>
    ...
    

[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# ls
db  Dockerfile  LICENSE  pom.xml  README.md  src  target

# 这一次我们提前修改好数据库配置再生成镜像
vim src/main/resources/application.yml 

在tomcat目录下创建镜像

[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# docker login 192.168.73.136
Authenticating with existing credentials…WARNING! 
Your password will be stored unencrypted in /root/.docker/config.json.Configure a credential helper to remove this warning. 
Seehttps://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/login/#credentials-storeLogin 
Succeeded

[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# docker build -t 192.168.43.129/library/java-demo:latest .
  
[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# docker push 192.168.73.136/test/java-demo:latest

回到上一级java-demo目录中

[root@k8s-master tomcat-java-demo-master]# cd ../
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# ls
db               deploy.yml    mandatory.yaml  namespace.yaml  service.yaml             tomcat-java-demo-master.zip
deployment.yaml  ingress.yaml  mysql.yaml      README.md       tomcat-java-demo-master
[root@k8s-master java-demo]#

创建一个test的命令空间

[root@k8s-master java-demo]# cat namespace.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: test namespace.yaml
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# kubectl apply -f namespace.yaml  
创建控制器管理Pod

编写deployment.yaml,创建pods,这里需要把image进行修改成刚才推送到Harbor镜像仓库中的地址

[root@k8s-master java-demo]# vim deployment.yaml 
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: tomcat-java-demo
  namespace: test
spec:
  replicas: 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      project: www
      app: java-demo
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        project: www
        app: java-demo
    spec:
      imagePullSecrets:
      - name: registry-pull-secret
      containers:
      - name: tomcat
        image: 192.168.73.136/test/java-demo:latest
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8080
          name: web
          protocol: TCP
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 0.25
            memory: 1Gi
          limits:
            cpu: 1
            memory: 2Gi
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /
            port: 8080
          initialDelaySeconds: 60
          timeoutSeconds: 20
        readinessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /
            port: 8080
          initialDelaySeconds: 60
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# kubectl adpply -f deployment.yaml 
Pod数据持久化

这里演示的是一个静态的web网站,基本不需要做持久化,直接把代码打包到了镜像中

暴露应用

创建一个service来暴露应用,直接使用的了ingress控制器的方式暴露应用了

[root@k8s-master java-demo]# cat service.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: tomcat-java-demo
  namespace: test
spec:
  selector:
    project: www
    app: java-demo
  ports:
  - name: web
    port: 80
    targetPort: 8080
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# kubectl apply -f service.yaml  
创建ingress对外发布应用

编写yaml,因为刚才php项目创建过ingress控制器,因此可以不用创建,直接创建ingress,最后可以查看pod,svc,ingress的状态,全部都正常可以开始下一步,如果有异常可以使用kubectl describe命令查看日志进行排错

[root@k8s-master java-demo]# cat ingress.yaml 
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: tomcat-java-demo 
  namespace: test
spec:
  rules:
    - host: java.ctnrs.com
      http:
        paths:
        - path: /
          backend:
            serviceName: tomcat-java-demo 
            servicePort: 80
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# kubectl apply -f ingress.yaml
[root@k8s-master java-demo]# kubectl get pod,svc,ingress -n test -o wide
NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP            NODE         NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
pod/php-demo-66d9c64968-4r4vn           1/1     Running   0          24h   10.244.1.73   k8s-node01   <none>           <none>
pod/php-demo-66d9c64968-8zw9s           1/1     Running   0          24h   10.244.2.43   k8s-node02   <none>           <none>
pod/tomcat-java-demo-5f4f64dd4b-tcmtv   1/1     Running   0          24h   10.244.2.42   k8s-node02   <none>           <none>
pod/tomcat-java-demo-5f4f64dd4b-vvx5x   1/1     Running   0          24h   10.244.1.72   k8s-node01   <none>           <none>

NAME                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE   SELECTOR
service/php-demo           NodePort    10.1.136.96   <none>        80:32625/TCP   24h   app=php-demo,project=www
service/tomcat-java-demo   ClusterIP   10.1.198.15   <none>        80/TCP         24h   app=java-demo,project=www

NAME                                  HOSTS            ADDRESS   PORTS   AGE
ingress.extensions/php-demo           php.ctnrs.com              80      24h
ingress.extensions/tomcat-java-demo   java.ctnrs.com             80      24h 
绑定本机hosts,访问域名验证

windows系统,hosts文件地址:C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc

Mac系统sudo vi /private/etc/hosts 编辑hosts文件,在底部加入域名和ip,用于解析,这里的ip是node的ip地址 加入如下命令,然后保存

192.168.43.120 java.ctnrs.com

原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/you-men/p/13222462.html

最后修改日期:2020年7月2日